PART3 26-100OF 1990'S
Published on February 18, 2004 By Wahkonta Anathema In History
PART 3 OF 3 ON business and civil judgements 26-100 of 1990's for archive.
EXCERPT BEGINS

26) Eastman Chemical Company
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $11 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 38(5), October 5, 1998

Eastman Chemical Company pled guilty and agreed to pay an $11 million criminal fine for participating in an international price-fixing conspiracy in the food preservatives industry.

Roughly $200 million worth of sorbates, which include potassium sorbate and sorbic acid, is sold worldwide every year.

Sorbates are chemical preservatives used primarily as mold inhibitors in high-moisture and high-sugar foods such as cheese and other dairy products, baked goods, and other processed foods.

Eastman is headquartered in Kingsport, Tennessee.

Federal officials alleged that Eastman, through one or more of its employees, conspired with other unnamed sorbate producers to suppress and eliminate competition in the sorbates market.

The Department of Justice alleged that Eastman officials agreed with their co-conspirators on prices to be charged for sorbates sold in the United States.

The single-count felony charges the company with participating in conversations to discuss the price of sorbates sold in the United States, agreeing, during those conversations, to charge prices at certain levels and otherwise increase and maintain prices of sorbates sold in the United States, and issuing price announcements and price quotations in accordance with the agreements reached.

27) Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $10.65 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(1), June 2, 1997


Copley Pharmaceutical, Inc., a Massachusetts-based generic drug maker, pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to defraud the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and agreed to pay a fine of $10.65 million.

Federal officials said the investigation began after two brothers -- Michael and Mark Riley -- who worked for the company, "blew the whistle on their superiors and the company."

A criminal information filed by the U.S. Attorney's office in Boston charged the company with:

* changing manufacturing methods from those approved by the FDA for drugs, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs;

* falsifying manufacturing batch records to cover-up the manufacturing deviations;

* submitting false annual reports to the FDA for FDA-approved drugs which did not disclose the manufacturing changes; and

* failing to seek prior FDA approval for certain manufacturing changes.

28) Lonza AG
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 10(1), March 8, 1999


A Swiss vitamin manufacturer and five United States executives pled guilty and agreed to cooperate in the government's ongoing investigation of illegal collusive practices in the international vitamin industry.

Federal officials charged the company, Lonza AG, with participating in a conspiracy to fix prices and allocate the volume of sales of vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide). The company agreed to pay a fine of $10.5 million for its role in the conspiracy.

The five executives were charged with participating in a conspiracy to fix prices and allocate customers and the sales of vitamin B4 (choline chloride). Vitamins B3 and B4 are used to enrich both animal and human nutritional products and are marketed worldwide.

In the Lonza case, federal officials alleged that company executives agreed with the other major vitamin B3 firms to suppress and eliminate competition in the Vitamin B3 market.

29) Kimberly Home Health Care Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $10.08 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(6), July 26, 1999

Olsten Corporation and a subsidiary, Kimberly Home Health Care, Inc., agreed to pay $61 million to settle allegations that both companies defrauded the Medicare program. Olsten agreed to pay nearly $51 million as part of a civil settlement, and Kimberly will enter into criminal plea agreements in three districts and pay more than $10 million in criminal fines.

Kimberly will pled guilty to three separate felony charges, which were filed in Florida and Georgia.

Kimberly will pled guilty to conspiracy, mail fraud and violating the Medicare Anti-Kickback statute, and agreed to pay $10.08 million in criminal fines in connection with its scheme to defraud the Medicare program.

Kimberly's parent company, Olsten, entered into a civil settlement agreement with the United States and agreed to pay $50.92 million to resolve its civil liability stemming from the same Medicare fraud schemes and an additional scheme in Brooklyn, New York.

Olsten and its subsidiaries own and operate management and staffing services for home health agencies in several states, including Florida and Georgia.

Federal officials alleged kickbacks and false Medicare billings made in connection with Kimberly's receipt of fees from another company for Kimberly's management of certain home health agencies.

30)(tie) Ajinomoto Co. Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(1), October 21, 1996
Ajinomoto Co. Inc., pled guilty to suppressing and eliminating competition in the lysine market from June 1992 through June 27, 1995 in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

30)(tie) Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI)
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $10 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 3(1) January 22, 1990
Two BCCI units pled guilty to 29 counts of laundering illegal drug profits. At the time of the indictment, Justice Department officials called the BCCI prosecution "the most important money laundering case in U.S. history." Among the bank's customers was Manuel Noriega.

Under the plea agreement, the two BCCI units, Bank of Credit and Commerce International S.A. and Bank of Credit and Commerce International (Overseas) Ltd. would forfeit $14.8 million in alleged drug profits and be placed on probation for five years.

BCCI was assessed $550 million in restitution, fines and penalties, including a $10 million criminal fine.

30)(tie) Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $10 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(1), October 21, 1996
Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd. pled guilty to suppressing and eliminating competition in the lysine market from June 1992 through June 27, 1995 in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Lysine is an amino acid used by farmers as a feed additive to ensure the proper growth of livestock. It is a $600 million a year industry worldwide.

30)(tie) Warner-Lambert Company
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $10 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(1), December 4, 1995
Warner-Lambert Company, a Fortune 500 pharmaceutical manufacturer, pled guilty to one felony count and was sentenced to pay a $10 million criminal fine for fraudulently failing to notify the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about persistent drug stability problems with certain prescription drugs.

Federal officials charged that the company violated federal law by fraudulently failing to report to the FDA drug stability failures concerning the prescription drug Dilantin, a widely used anti-epileptic medication.

34) General Electric
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $9.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(7), July 27, 1992
General Electric Company pled guilty to charges of defrauding the federal government of $26.5 million in the sale of military equipment to Israel.

The company paid $69 million in fines, penalties and damages for committing the offenses. Of that, $9.5 million is a criminal fine.

The company pled guilty to diverting millions of dollars to a former Israeli Air Force General to assist GE in securing favorable treatment in connection with the F-16 program.

35)(tie) Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $9 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 23(3), June 8, 1998
Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., one of the world's largest passenger cruise lines, pled guilty to a fleet-wide conspiracy of dumping oil into the ocean and lying to the U.S. Coast Guard to cover up the crimes. The company was fined $9 million.

The plea agreement, which was filed in federal courts in Miami, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico, was reached on the eve of trials scheduled in Miami and Puerto Rico on June 2nd and 8th, 1998.

Royal Caribbean president Jack Williams issued a strong statement accepting responsibility and apologizing for the company's crimes.

Federal officials said that the conspiracy included using false oil record books. These logs were kept to record all overboard discharges. Some Royal Caribbean engineers had referred to the oil record books, which were presented to the Coast Guard during inspections in U.S. ports, as the "Eventyrbok," which means "Fairytale book" in Norwegian.

The company also pled guilty to two counts of obstruction of justice -- witness tampering (ordering an engineer to lie to a federal grand jury) and destroying evidence of a bypass pipe used to make illegal discharges from the cruise ship "Sovereign of the Seas."

35)(tie) Showa Denko Carbon
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $9 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(4), May 10, 1999
Showa Denko Carbon, Inc. (SDC), a U.S. subsidiary of the Japanese firm Showa Financing KK, pled guilty to a charge of participating in an international cartel to fix the price and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes sold in the United States and elsewhere and was fined $9 million.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making "mini-mills."

SDC is charged with violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by conspiring with unnamed co-conspirators to suppress and eliminate competition. According to the charges, SDC fixed prices and allocated market share for graphite electrodes in the United States and elsewhere from 1993 until January 1997.

37) IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd.
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $8.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 32(1), August 10, 1998
A unit of IBM Corp. pled guilty in Washington, D.C. to a 17-count criminal information charging violations that the company unlawfully exported computers to a Russian nuclear lab.

The company, IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd., was sentenced to pay $8.5 million, the maximum fine authorized by law.

IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd., the Russian subsidiary of IBM, admitted that it sold and exported computers to Arzamas-16, the Russian nuclear lab, "having reason to believe that the computers would be used directly or indirectly in research on or development, design, manufacture, construction, testing or maintenance of nuclear explosive devices" in violation of federal export control laws.

38) Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc.
Type of crime: Campaign finance
Criminal fine: $8 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(3), October 13, 1997
Empire Sanitary Landfill Inc. pled guilty to making illegal campaign contributions and was fined $8 million, the largest criminal fine ever imposed in a federal election campaign finance fraud prosecution.

In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, federal officials charged Empire with making $129,000 in illegal corporate contributions.

The money went to both the Dole and Clinton 1996 president campaigns and numerous Congressional campaigns, but the Dole campaign received the largest chunk of the money -- $80,000 in illegal contributions in April and May 1995.

39)(tie) Colonial Pipeline Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $7 million
13 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(3), March 1, 1999
Colonial Pipeline Company, the operator of the largest hazardous liquid pipeline in the world, pled guilty to criminal charges in connection with a spill of almost one million gallons of oil into the Reedy River in South Carolina.

The company was fined $7 million and put on five years probation.

Colonial is owned by several of the world's largest oil companies. Shareholders include Mobil, Texaco and Amoco.

The company pled guilty to a misdemeanor charge of violating the Clean Water Act when it failed to exercise reasonable care leading to the rupture of its pipeline where it crosses the Reedy River near Simpsonville, South Carolina.

Colonial Pipeline acknowledged that its actions led to the spill of about 960,000 gallons of diesel fuel affecting a 23-mile segment of the river. The spill killed about 35,000 fish and also affected wildlife such as beaver, muskrat, and turtles, which died as a result of direct contact with the spilled oil.

39)(tie) Eklof Marine Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $7 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 37(4), September 29, 1997
A tugboat company, Eklof Marine Corporation, its president, the tugboat's captain and two affiliated companies pled guilty to environmental crimes in connection with a 826,000 gallon oil spill off Rhode Island in 1996.

The spill caused substantial environmental damage, killing marine and bird life on Rhode Island's south coast.

The North Cape barge, carrying four million gallons of home heating oil, ran aground after a fire broke out in the engine room of the Scandia tugboat, which was towing the North Cape to Providence.

The crew had to abandon the tug, leaving it and the barge adrift in a severe winter storm.

Eklof Marine Corporation, two affiliate companies, Eklof's president and the tugboat's captain admitted that their combined negligence caused the spill.

The companies agreed to pay $8.5 million in fines and conservation payments and will undertake a $1 million remedial safety program on any vessels navigating Rhode Island waters.

41)(tie) Chevron
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $6.5 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter, 22(1), June 1, 1992
Chevron pled guilty to 65 Clean Water Act violations and paid $8 million in criminal and civil fines.

The crimes were committed on Platform Grace, an oil drilling platform in the Santa Barbara Channel.

Of the $8 million, $6.5 million is a criminal penalty, and $1.5 million is a civil penalty.

Federal officials charged that Chevron discharged oil and grease in waste water that exceeded limits in its federal permit.

Chevron also admitted to diluting waste water prior to its being sampled, so as to understate the actual amount of oil and grease discharge which it reported to the Environmental Protection Administration.

41)(tie) Rockwell International Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $6.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 15(4), April 15, 1996
Rockwell International Corporation pled guilty to three felony counts and agreed to pay a $6.5 million fine in connection with a 1994 chemical explosion that killed two scientists at the firm's Santa Susana Field Laboratory in Simi Hills, California.

Federal officials in Los Angeles charged that in June and July 1994, Rockwell's Rocketdyne division illegally stored and disposed of hazardous waste at the facility. The waste in question, triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN), an explosive, was used as a gun propellant.

On July 26, 1994, two Rockwell scientists, Otto Heiney and Larry Pugh, were killed in an explosion at the facility.

For months following the blast, Rockwell officials claimed that Heiney and Pugh died while conducting legitimate experiments with explosives. But Rocketdyne President Paul Smith later admitted that the blast came as the two were illegally burning a volatile explosive to get rid of it.

43) Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $6 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 19(4), May 10, 1999
Tokai Carbon Ltd. Co. pled guilty to a charge of participating in an international cartel to fix the price and allocate the volume of graphite electrodes sold in the United States and elsewhere and was fined $6 million.

Graphite electrodes are large columns used in electric arc furnaces in steel-making "mini-mills."

44)(tie) Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 45(1), November 25, 1996
Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (LabCorp), headquartered in Burlington, North Carolina, agreed to pay $182 million to resolve allegations that it submitted false claims for medically unnecessary laboratory tests to federal and state health care programs.

Immediately before the announcement of the civil settlement, the San Diego Regional Laboratory of Allied Clinical Laboratories, Inc., which is now owned by LabCorp, pled guilty to submitting a false claim to Medicare and to the California Medicaid Program for an unnecessary blood test and was fined $5 million.

LabCorp entered into a pre-trial diversion program with the U.S. Attorney in North Carolina and a corporate integrity program with the Department of Health and Human Services.

The settlement is the largest single settlement under the qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act. The largest previous settlement was with United Technologies Corporation in 1994 for $150 million.

The LabCorp case came to the attention of law enforcement officials after a doctor noticed that the blood laboratory he was using routinely did tests that he neither needed nor wanted for his patients.

44)(tie) Northern Brands International Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $5 million
13 Corporate Crime Reporter 1(1), January 4,1999
Northern Brands International Inc., a unit of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco International Inc., pled guilty and agreed to pay a total of $15 million in criminal fines and forfeitures for aiding and abetting customers who evaded more than $2.5 million in U.S. excise taxes by fraudulently transporting within the United States cigarettes that were intended to be exported.

"This guilty plea may be the first time an affiliate of a major tobacco company has been convicted of a federal crime in the United States," said U.S. Attorney Thomas Maroney in Binghamton, New York.

Northern Brands, which is headquartered in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, was charged with fraudulently moving 26 loads of Canadian cigarettes by representing to the U.S. Customs Service that the merchandise would be transported in the U.S. solely for exportation to the Republic of Estonia or the Republic of Russia.

44)(tie) Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation
Type of Crime: Obstruction of justice
Criminal Fine: $5 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 2(3), January 16, 1995
Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson, pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to obstruct justice, one count of obstruction of justice and eight counts of corruptly persuading employees to destroy documents relating to a federal investigation of the drug company's Retin A public relations campaign.

The company was fined $5 million and ordered to pay restitution of $2.5 million.

The charges related to a Food and Drug Administration investigation into an extensive public relations campaign that generated publicity about Retin-A's use in the treatment of sun-wrinkled, or photoaged, skin.

Retin-A was approved by the FDA in 9171 for the treatment of Acne. The FDA did not approve Retin-A for the use in treatment of photoaged skin.

The company admitted directing its employees to destroy documents relating to the Retin-A public relations campaign.

44)(tie) Unisys
Type of Crime: Bribery
Criminal Fine: $5 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 35(11), September 16, 1991
Unisys pled guilty to conspiracy to defraud the U.S., bribery, conversion of government property, filing a false statement and filing false claims.

Unisys pled guilty to bribing three former high ranking Navy officials. The company was forced to pay a total of $190 million in criminal and civil fines and restitution.

44)(tie) Georgia Pacific Corporation
Type of Crime: Tax evasion
Criminal Fine: $5 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 38(8), October 7, 1991
Georgia Pacific Corporation pled guilty to federal charges of tax evasion. Federal officials alleged that the company made a false claim of a $24 million charitable contribution deduction on the company's 1984 federal income tax return. The company agreed to pay a $5 million criminal fine and $16 million to settle civil charges.

49) Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4.5 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(4), July 18, 1994
Kanzaki Specialty Papers Inc. pled guilty to conspiring to fix the prices of thermal fax paper. The defendants companies raised the prices to North American customers by about 10 percent.

Kanzaki was fined $4.5 million.

50) ConAgra Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $4.4 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(1), March 24, 1997
ConAgra Inc., one of the nation's largest food companies, pled guilty to federal charges of adulteration, misgrading, and misweighing of grain.

The company agreed to pay $8.3 million in penalties, including a criminal fine of $4.4 million.

Federal officials alleged that ConAgra used several schemes to defraud farmers and grain buyers to increase their own grain inventories and profits. Soybeans were purposefully misgraded, allowing ConAgra to pay less to the farmer, yet sell at higher prices. Water was added to grain inventories, thereby adding weight and increasing profits when grain was sold. And ConAgra significantly misweighed grain being sold to end users.

51) Ryland Mortgage Company
Type of Crime: Financial
Criminal Fine: $4.2 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 32(1), August 10, 1998
Ryland Mortgage Company pled guilty to two counts of corruptly interfering with the functions of the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC) and agreed to pay $7.7 million.

Ryland Mortgage is a unit of the Columbia, Maryland-based The Ryland Group.

Federal officials in Jacksonville, Florida alleged that Ryland "intentionally induced" the RTC to make overpayments to Ryland totalling $3.4 million for loan servicing contracts.

The company agreed to pay fines totalling $4.2 million and $3.5 million in restitution and interest.

52)(tie) Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(1), July 20, 1998
Health Care Service Corporation (HCSC), also known as Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois, pled guilty to eight felony counts and agreed to pay $144 million after admitting it concealed evidence of poor performance in processing Medicare claims for the federal government.

HCSC, the Medicare contractor for Illinois and Michigan, also admitted obstructing justice and conspiring to obstruct federal auditors.

The company agreed to pay $4 million in criminal fines and $140 million in a civil settlement to resolve its liability under the False Claims Act.

"Medicare fraud and abuse is always a serious matter but it is particularly grievous when the abuse involves a contractor entrusted to protect the financial integrity of the program," said June Gibbs Brown, the Inspector General at the Department of Health and Human Services. "In this case, the trust was flagrantly violated by a prestigious nationally known company. It engaged in unconscionable conduct that adversely affected Medicare beneficiaries, providers and the program itself."

Brown said the company "compromised protections by artificially inflating performance results."

"It also falsified and destroyed documents for the purpose of disguising its shortcomings," Brown said.

52)(tie) Borden Inc.
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(9), March 19, 1990
Borden Inc. pled guilty to multi-count felony informations charging long-running conspiracies to rig bids to supply dairy products to federally subsidized school milk programs and military installations.

Federal officials alleged that Borden conspired to rig school milk bids in the Florida peninsula from the early 1970s through at least 1988.

52)(tie) Dexter Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $4 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 35(6), September 14, 1992
Dexter Corporation, a Connecticut-based Fortune 500 paper company, pled guilty to violating federal and state pollution laws. The company pled guilty to eight felony counts of knowingly violating the Clean Water Act.

The company was charged with illegally disposing of carbon disulfide at its Windsor Locks facility.

The company paid a $4 million criminal fine and $9 million in civil penalties.

52)(tie) Southland Corporation
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $4 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 11(9), March 19, 1990
Southland Corporation pled guilty to multi-count felony informations charging long-running conspiracies to rig bids to supply dairy products to federally subsidized school milk programs and military installations.

Federal officials alleged that Southland conspired to rig school milk bids in the Florida peninsula from the early 1970s through at least 1988.

52)(tie) Teledyne Industries Inc.
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $4 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 5(3), February 6, 1995
Teledyne Industries Inc. pled guilty to charges that it illegally exported cluster bomb components from the United States for use by Iraq during its war with Iran during the 1980s.

A cluster bomb consists of a large bomb casing filled with hundreds of small bomblets. The casing breaks open as the bomb is dropped, and disperses the bomblets over a wide area.

52)(tie) Tyson Foods Inc.
Type of Crime: Public corruption
Criminal Fine: $4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 1(3), January 5, 1998
Tyson Foods Inc., the world's largest chicken products company, pled guilty to giving former Secretary of Agriculture Alphonso Michael Espy over $12,000 in gratuities and agreed to pay $6 million in fines and investigative expenses.

A one-count criminal information charged that Tyson Foods gave four gratuities to Espy during 1993 and 1994 while Tyson had a number of matters before the Department of Agriculture (USDA).

The matters included an emergency interim final rule issued on August 16, 1993 by the USDA that required processors, including Tyson Foods, to place safe handling instructions on all raw meat and poultry packaging.

U.S. District Court Judge Ricardo M. Urbina accepted Tyson Foods' plea of guilty, which was entered by Don Tyson, the chairman of the Tyson Foods Board of Directors.

Under the terms of the plea agreement, Tyson Foods agreed to pay a $4 million fine and $2 million in investigative costs.

58)(tie) Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA)
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(6), July 22, 1991
The Aluminum Company of America pled guilty to environmental crimes and paid $7.5 million in fines for hazardous waste and other violations at the company's facility in Massena, New York.

The payment includes a criminal fine of $3.75 million, at the time the largest fine ever assessed for a hazardous waste violation.

58)(tie) Costain Coal Inc.
Type of Crime: Worker Death
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 9(10), March 1, 1993
Costain Coal Inc. pled guilty to a pattern of misconduct at a Kentucky mine shaft site where a 1989 explosion killed ten workers. The company agreed to pay a $3.75 million fine.

The company pled guilty to 29 counts and no contest to three counts. Twenty three of the counts were felonies, and nine of the counts were misdemeanors. They included violations of the Mine Safety Act's mandatory health and safety standards and false statements on records filed by the company.

58)(tie) United States Sugar Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.75 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 27(4), December 9, 1991
United States Sugar Corporation pled guilty to eight felony environmental counts and was fined $3.75 million.

Federal officials charged U.S. Sugar with eight felonies involving the illegal disposal and transportation of hazardous wastes.

Federal officials alleged that the crimes occurred at the company's Bryant facilities in the Lake Okeechobee area of south Florida. Federal officials charged the company with illegal disposal of lead subacetate hazardous wastes in the late 1980s. Lead subacetate is a chemical agent containing 72 percent lead which is used in the sugar mill laboratory during the harvest season.

61) Saybolt, Inc., Saybolt North America
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3.4 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 33(1), August 17, 1998
Saybolt, Inc., and its parent company, Saybolt, North America, pled guilty to falsifying reports submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). The company agreed to pay a $3.4 million fine.

Saybolt's primary business is the testing of bulk commodities, such as petroleum, gasoline and other petrochemicals.

Federal officials alleged that false reports involved testing of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline (RFG). RFG is blended to meet specifications for various chemical and physical properties, including oxygen content.

Federal officials also alleged that in 1995, Saybolt arranged to pay $50,000 in cash to Panamanian government officials in order to obtain favorable treatment for the company's operations in that country.

62)(tie) Bristol-Myers Squibb
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 18(3), May 4, 1992
Bristol-Myers Squibb, one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, pled guilty to charges of illegally discharging pollutants into Syracuse, New York area waters.

The company paid $3.5 million in criminal fines and penalties and agreed to built a pre-treatment facility that will cost at least $10 million.

The company admitted to discharging chemical pollutants into the Onondaga County Metropolitan Treatment Plant in September and October 1987 in violation of the federal Clean Water Act.

62)(tie) Chemical Waste Management Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 40(5), October 19, 1992
Chemical Waste Management Inc., a unit of Waste Management Inc., pled guilty to six felony violations of the federal Superfund law, for the company's failure to notify the government about reportable quantities of hazardous wastes that were released into the environment.

Federal officials alleged that the company knowingly and intentionally crushed numerous drums containing hazardous substances in order to speed up a clean-up product outside Scranton, Pennsylvania.

The company paid a $3 million criminal fine and $2.85 in criminal restitution. In total, the company paid $11.6 million in criminal, civil and administrative penalties in connection with the settlement of the case.

62)(tie) Ketchikan Pulp Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(1), April 3, 1995
Ketchikan Pulp Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Louisiana Pacific Corporation, pled guilty to dumping harmful sludge and wastewater into Alaska's Ward Cove, including an intentional dump that lasted for five straight days.

The company paid $3 million in criminal fines, $3.1 million in civil penalties and was ordered to clean up the area where it polluted.

62)(tie) United Technologies Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 27, 1991
United Technologies Corporation pled guilty to six felony violations of federal environmental laws and was fined $3 million, at the time the largest criminal fine ever for a hazardous waste violation in the United States.

The charges related to the illegal discharge of hazardous waste at the company Sikorsky Aircraft Division in Stratford, Connecticut in 1986.

Federal officials charged that an industrial solvent was dumped illegally on the ground at the Stratford facility.

62)(tie) Warner-Lambert Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $3 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 37(3), September 29, 1997
Pharmaceutical manufacturer Warner-Lambert Inc. pled guilty and agreed to pay a $3 million criminal fine for falsifying reports on the levels of pollutants it was releasing into a drainage channel that feeds the Cibuco River from its wastewater treatment plant in Vega Baja, Puerto Rico.

The company also agreed to pay a $670,000 civil penalty for routinely releasing excessive levels of pollutants between 1992 and 1995, violating its wastewater discharge permit 347 times.

67)(tie) Arizona Chemical Co. Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(5), October 14, 1996
Arizona Chemical Co. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of International Paper Co., pled guilty, was fined $2.5 million, and was ordered to pay $1.5 million in restitution to the Pollution Emergency Fund of the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ).

The company pled guilty to felony violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Arizona Chemical operates chemical manufacturing plants in Gulfport and Picayune, Mississippi.

The company admitted to two felony counts of violating the CWA at its Gulfport plant. The violations occurred as a result of manipulating the plant's wastewater treatment system on sampling days so that it could report more favorable results under the plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit.

The company also admitted to one felony RCRA count involving the Picayune plant which had accumulated and stored a number of drums containing hazardous waste and had intentionally mischaracterized some of the drums as "cleaning oil" on inventory sheets.

67)(tie) Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail)
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.5 million
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(1), July 31, 1995
Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) pled guilty to six felony counts of violating federal environmental laws by knowingly discharging harmful quantities of oil and grease into the Charles River.

Under the plea agreement, the company was fined $2.5 million.

Conrail pled guilty to six violations of the Clean Water Act and Oil Pollution Act, including discharging oil and grease into the Charles River on April 7, 1994 from its Beacon Park Rail Yard in Allston, Massachusetts.

The discharge caused a visible oil slick on the Charles River hundreds of yards long, and was seen by a rower who reported it to environmental authorities.

69) International Paper
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2.2 million
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 31(7), August 5, 1991
International Paper pled guilty to five felony counts for violations of environmental laws at its Androscoggin Mill in Jay, Maine. The company paid $2.2 million in criminal fines.

Federal officials alleged that during the course of the company's operation of the mill from 1986 to 1988, the company knowingly generated, stored and treated hazardous wastes without a permit.

In addition, federal officials alleged that the company gave false material statements.

70)(tie) Consolidated Edison Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(5), November 28, 1994
Consolidated Edison Company pled guilty to four environmental crime counts in connection with the release of 200 pounds of asbestos after an August 1989 steam manhole explosion in the Gramercy Park section of Manhattan.

The company was fined $2 million. The company pled to failing to report the asbestos release in a timely fashion and falsely reporting that the company did not believe that asbestos found in the street was from the manhole.

70)(tie) Crop Growers Corporation
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal fine: $2 million
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 4(3), January 27, 1997
Crop Growers Corporation, the second largest private seller of federal multi-peril crop insurance, pled no contest to conspiring to defraud the Federal Election Commission by concealing $46,000 in illegal corporate contributions to the Henry Espy for Congress campaign in 1993 and 1994, and with falsifying its books and records to hide these illegal contributions. The company was fined $2 million.

On the eve of its trial, Crop Growers pled nolo contendre to a two-count indictment which charged that in 1993, corporate contributions totaling $26,000 were disguised as individual contributions from various employees, related parties and their spouses, and that an additional $20,000 corporate contribution was made in 1994 to Henry Espy's campaign debt retirement effort through a New Orleans lawyer.

70)(tie) E-Systems Inc.
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $2 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 33, September 3, 1990
E-Systems Inc. pled guilty to conspiracy to defraud the government on contracts for Army field radios by falsifying test results.

Federal prosecutors charged that the company and others conspired to falsify records and test results of tactical field radios supplied to the Army. The company also pled guilty to filing for and receiving payments based on the submission of false information.

E-Systems agreed to pay a $2 million criminal fine and $1.8 million in restitution.

70)(tie) HAL Beheer BV
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 39(4), October 12, 1998
HAL Beheer BV, the Dutch corporation that operated the Holland America Line cruise ship ss Rotterdam, pled guilty to felony violations of the Act to Prevent Pollution From Ships.

As part of its plea, the company agreed to pay a $2 million fine and will be placed on probation for a period of five years.

HAL Beheer BV pled guilty to discharging an oily mixture from the bilges of the vessel in violation of the federal law that prohibits dumping of untreated bilge water into coastal waters within three miles of America's shores.

The company also pled guilty to failing to keep records of oily mixture discharge, as required by law.

70)(tie) John Morrell and Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $2 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 6(3), February 12, 1996
John Morrell and Company, pled guilty to dumping slaughterhouse waste into the Big Sioux River in Sioux Falls, South Dakota and deliberately submitting phony test data and discharge reports to conceal its crimes.

Morrell paid a $2 million criminal fine and was ordered to spend another $1 million to establish a local environmental cleanup fund.

The charges include conspiracy and violations of the Clean Water Act related to Morrell's unlawful discharges of slaughterhouse waste from a company wastewater treatment plant over an 8-year period, from 1985 to 1993.

70)(tie) United Technologies Corporation
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $2 million
6 Corporate Crime Reporter 34(4), September 7, 1992
United Technologies Corporation (UTC) pled guilty to four felony counts and paid a $2 million criminal fine.

Three of the counts related to the procurement of a Marine Corps radar control system. The fourth count related to the Navy's procurement of F-404 jet engines.

In the plea agreement, UTC admitted that it conspired to defraud the government, to convert procurement sensitive information and to commit wire fraud in connection with the procurement of the radar and engines.

76) Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi International Corporation
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $1.8 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 29(4), July 18, 1994
Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi International Corporation pled guilty to conspiring to fix the prices of thermal fax paper. The defendants companies raised the prices to North American customers by about 10 percent.

Mitsubishi Corporation was fined $1.26 million and Mitsubishi International Corporation was fined $540,000.

77)(tie) Blue Shield of California
Type of Crime: Fraud
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 18(3), May 6, 1996
Blue Shield of California pled guilty to three felony counts in connection with efforts by various Blue Shield employees to conceal claims processing errors from Medicare examiners over a six-year period.

The company was fined $1.5 million.

Federal officials charged that Blue Shield, acting through employees in its Medicare Division, conspired to obstruct audits conducted in connection with Blue Shield's Medicare Part B contract with the Health Care Financing Administration.

77)(tie) Browning-Ferris Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 23(3), June 8, 1998
Browning-Ferris Inc. (BFI) pled guilty to failing to notify the District of Columbia that it discharged contaminated wastewater from its medical waste facility into Washington, D.C.'s sewer system.

BFI was fined $1.5 million and agreed to a nationwide program to ensure its medical waste facilities are complying with the law.

Federal officials charged the company with discharging contaminated wastewater from it's Capitol Processing Plant in violation of the Clean Water Act. The plant is a medical waste facility located in northeast Washington, D.C.

77)(tie) Odwalla Inc.
Type of Crime: Food and drug
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(1), July 27, 1998
Odwalla, Inc, the company with a reputation for making pure, clean, and nutritious juice drinks, pled guilty to violating federal food safety laws and agreed to pay a $1.5 million fine for selling contaminated apple juice that killed a 16-month old girl and injured at least 70 others.

The fine is the largest criminal fine for a food injury case in the history of the Food and Drug Administration and the first such criminal conviction obtained in the wake of a large-scale pathogenic outbreak.

Odwalla pled guilty to sixteen counts of "delivery of adulterated food products for introduction into interstate commerce."

The company will serve five years of supervised probation.

77)(tie) Teledyne Inc.
Type of Crime: False statements
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 34(12), September 6, 1993
Teledyne Inc. pled guilty to three felony counts for making false statements to the federal government and was fined $1.5 million.

Federal officials alleged that the company submitted false statements to the government related to its undisclosed payment of millions of dollars in commissions to a Taiwan consultant to obtain military contracts from the Taiwan government.

77)(tie) Unocal Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1.5 million
8 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(8), March 21, 1994
Unocal Corporation pled no contest to three criminal pollution charges and agreed to pay a $1.5 million criminal fine for leaking petroleum thinner into the ocean and groundwater at its Guadalupe, California oil field.

The company was found guilty of discharging up to 8.5 million gallons of petroleum over a 40 year period.

Unocal submitted a plea of no contest and was found guilty of criminal charges of failing to report the discharge of petroleum, and discharging the petroleum where it could pass into state waters.

California authorities agreed to drop 33 misdemeanor charges, including six charges against Unocal employees, when the company accepted full criminal responsibility for its conduct.

82)(tie) Doyon Drilling Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1 million
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 21(1), May 25, 1998
Doyon Drilling Inc., an Alaskan oil drilling firm, pled guilty to 15 counts of violating the Oil Pollution Act, was fined $1 million and was ordered to serve five years probation.

The company also agreed to spend $2 million to establish an environmental compliance and training program for its employees.

Michael Krupa, Doyon's health, safety and environmental coordinator, pled guilty to two counts of illegally discharging oil and hazardous substances and will serve one year and one day in jail and pay a $25,000 fine.

Allan Sinclair, Doyon's former toolpusher/rig supervisor pled guilty to concealing a felony and will serve four months of home confinement, five years probation and pay a $25,000 fine.

All three defendants pled guilty to illegally disposing of paint thinner, paint, oil and solvents by illegally injecting them down the outer rim of oil producing wells on Endicott Island, a man-made drilling facility located off of the northern coast of Alaska.

82)(tie) Eastman Kodak
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $1 million
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 14(1), April 9, 1990
Eastman Kodak Company pled guilty to state criminal charges of unlawful dealing in hazardous wastes and failure to properly notify authorities of a chemical spill.

The charges grew out of a spill of about 5,100 gallons of methylene chloride in February 1987 and the failure of the company to immediately notify government officials of the spill.

Neighborhood groups fighting Kodak were disappointed with the $1 million criminal fine. "It's equivalent to you or I getting a jaywalking ticket," said Joseph Polito, a neighboring resident.

82)(tie) Case Corporation
Type of Crime: Illegal exports
Criminal Fine: $1 million
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(4), June 3, 1996
Case Corporation, headquartered in Racine, Wisconsin, pled guilty to two counts of violating the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA) and one count of violating the Export Administration Act.

In January and February of 1986, then President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Orders prohibiting citizens of the United States from performing contracts in support of commercial or government projects in Libya.

Case, a unit of Tenneco, pled guilty to selling, through a French affiliate, heavy construction equipment to Libya.

85) Marathon Oil
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $900,000
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 22(5), June 3, 1991
Marathon Oil Company pled guilty to criminal violations of the Clean Water Act. The company illegally discharged pollutants from its refinery in Indianapolis.

The guilty plea concludes a two year investigation by the FBI following a May 26, 1989 explosion and fire in a house located downstream from the refinery. Shortly after the explosion, measurements were taken in the sewer system at the refinery's discharge point that showed 100 percent levels of explosivity.

The company pled guilty to one felony count and two misdemeanor counts.

86) Hyundai Motor Company
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $600,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 48(3), December 18, 1995
Hyundai Motor America pled guilty to charges of violating the Federal Election Campaign Act in connection with illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign.

A federal grand jury in Los Angeles indicted Hyundai on charges of making prohibited corporate contributions, illegal contributions through employee conduits, and prohibited foreign national contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations and foreign nationals to contribute to candidates in federal elections and it is illegal to make contributions under the name of another.

The company was fined $600,000.

87)(tie) Baxter International Inc.
Type of Crime: Illegal Boycott
Criminal Fine: $500,000
7 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(7) , March 29, 1993
Baxter International Inc. pled guilty to a criminal felony for violating the Anti-Boycott Statute by providing information about the company's business dealings with Israel to Arab League boycott authorities.

The company paid $6 million in civil penalties and a $500,000 criminal fine.

87)(tie) Bethship-Sabine Yard
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 26(4), July 3, 1995
A $500,000 criminal fine was levied against the Bethship-Sabine Yard in Port Arthur, Texas, a division of Bethlehem Steel Corp., after the company pled guilty to illegally discharging pollutants into the Sabine Neches Waterway.

Bethship-Sabine Yard will also pay $1 million to the Southeast Texas Coastal Trust Fund, a fund entrusted to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Foundation to increase the productivity of coastal wetlands and estuarine ecosystems in and near the Sabine Neches Waterway.

The one count information alleged that between January 25, 1991 and September 21, 1991, the Bethship-Sabine Yard illegally discharged pollutants from its floating drydock facility without first having obtained the necessary permit under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.

87((tie) Palm Beach Cruises
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999
Palm Beach Cruises pled guilty and was sentenced on August 30, 1994 to a fine of $500,000 for discharging waste oil from its bilges, causing a 2.5 mile oil slick off the coast of Florida. Palm Beach Cruises also had to establish and maintain an effective environmental compliance program.

87)(tie) Princess Cruises Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $500,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999
Princess Cruises Inc. pled guilty and was sentenced on April 15, 1993 to the maximum criminal fine of $500,000 for illegal dumping of garbage off the Florida Keys.

91)(tie) Cerestar Bioproducts BV
Type of Crime: Antitrust
Criminal Fine: $400,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 28(3), June 29, 1998
Cerestar Bioproducts BV, a Dutch subsidiary of the French agricultural products giant Eridania Bghin-Say SA pled guilty and was fined $400,000 for participating in an international conspiracy to fix prices and allocate market shares in the sale of citric acid worldwide.

Citric acid is a flavor additive and preservative produced from various sugars. It is found in soft drinks, processed foods, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products. Citric acid is a $1.2 billion a year industry worldwide.

Federal officials alleged that a Cerestar executive conspired with the world's major producers of citric acid to suppress and eliminate competition in the citric acid industry from November 1992 until April 1994.

91)(tie) Sun-Land Products of California
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $400,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 33(1), August 17, 1998
Sun-Land Products of California, a worldwide supplier of dried fruits and nuts, and a subsidiary of Sun-Diamond Growers of California, pled guilty to charges that the company made conduit campaign contributions in violation of federal election law.

Federal officials alleged that Sun-Land made conduit contributions of $16,000 to the Bush-Quayle '92 Primary Committee Inc. and additional conduit contributions of $21,000 to Campaign America in 1993.

93)(tie) American Cyanamid
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $250,000
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 46(5), December 3, 1990
American Cyanamid pled guilty to building an unauthorized power plant at its Pearl River facility in Rockland County, New York.

The company was fined $250,000, the largest criminal penalty ever assessed in New York for a violation of state air quality regulations.

The company entered a guilty plea to a one count misdemeanor complaint.

State officials said that American Cyanamid's Lederle Laboratories division admitted that it began construction on a $22.5 million cogeneration facility in November 1988, knowing it did not have a necessary permit.

93)(tie) Korean Air Lines
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $250,000
9 Corporate Crime Reporter 47(1), December 11, 1995
Korean Airlines Co., Ltd. pled guilty to two counts of violating the Federal Election Campaign Act by making a total of $5,000 in corporate contributions and foreign national contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations and foreign nationals to contribute to candidates in federal elections. The company was fined $250,000.

93)(tie) Regency Cruises Inc.
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $250,000
12 Corporate Crime Reporter 30(4), July 26, 1999
Regency Cruises, Inc., a cruise ship company, was ordered to pay a $250,000 criminal fine by the Federal District Court for the Middle District of Florida for deliberately dumping plastic garbage into the Gulf of Mexico in 1993.

Regency Cruises, owner of the Bahamian flag cruise ships Regent Rainbow and Regent Sea based in Tampa, Florida, and which ply the waters of the Gulf, was charged with and pled guilty to violating the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships.

96)(tie) Adolph Coors Company
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $200,000
4 Corporate Crime Reporter 43(3), November 12, 1990
Adolph Coors Company pled guilty to two criminal misdemeanor counts of contaminating groundwater and failing to report the contamination to regulatory authorities.

Colorado officials alleged that Coors violated water contamination notification standards and illegal discharged hazardous waste into groundwater and into a creek near its Golden, Colorado facility from 1981 to 1984.

96)(tie) Andrew and Williamson Sales Co.
Type of crime: Food and drug
Criminal fine: $200,000
11 Corporate Crime Reporter 44(4), November 17, 1997
A strawberry distributor and its president pled guilty to crimes in connection with the March 1997 hepatitis outbreak that contaminated 198 school children and teachers in Michigan, Maine and Wisconsin.

Andrew and Williamson Sales Co. (A&W), and its president, Frederick Williamson, admitted their role in the fraudulent sale of 1.7 million pounds of Mexican grown strawberries to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's school lunch program.

As part of a parallel civil settlement, the company agreed to pay the government $1.3 million in civil damages.

The company was fined $200,000.

96)(tie) Daewoo International (America) Corporation
Type of Fine: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $200,000
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 13(3), April 1, 1996
Daewoo International (America) Corporation pled guilty to violating the Federal Election Campaign Act. The company was charged with making $5,000 in illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law it is illegal for corporations to contribute to candidates in federal elections and it is illegal to make contributions in the name of another.

96)(tie) Exxon Corporation
Type of Crime: Environmental
Criminal Fine: $200,000
5 Corporate Crime Reporter 12(1), March 25, 1991
Exxon Corporation pled guilty to federal charges in connection with a spill last year of 567,000 gallons of home heating oil into Arthur Kill, a narrow waterway which separates New York from New Jersey. Exxon entered the plea as part of a $15 million settlement with local, state and federal governments.

Exxon was fined $200,000 the maximum allowed by law, but paid an additional $4.8 million in restitution as part of a $15 million package global settlement.

100) Samsung America Inc.
Type of Crime: Campaign finance
Criminal Fine: $150,000
10 Corporate Crime Reporter 6(5), February 12, 1996
Samsung America Inc. pled guilty to violating the Federal Election Campaign Act. The company made $10,000 in illegal contributions to the 1992 Jay Kim for Congress Campaign Committee.

Under federal law, it is illegal for corporations to contribute to candidates in federal elections.
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Comments
on Feb 20, 2004
No wonder the robber barons are outsourcing! Great blog--I wonder if those fines go toward paying down the debt? [chuckle]. It's truly amazing, well, not really, these offenders go unnoticed by the media. Do you watch Lou Dobbs? Before he returned as a crusader against business, he always seemed so pro-business. What gave him religion?
on Feb 20, 2004
That's true about Dobbs. I watched him tearing up the business report and outsourcing of America and was stunned to see him actually emoting a point of view so well. It's like walking around with a picket sign at this point though. Holding hands as the dam bursts over us is not a solution. Reporting to your nearest Protest zone will give us joy-joy feelings but not solve a problem. It's, it's, it's getting kind of hectic. I mainly put this up for my archive and future use in other research but it has so much on so many aspects of our day-to-day I went ahead and let the stock holders see how their portfolio is doing from a different angle. I'm getting ready to get into this catastrophe scenario as the key to it all. It is mind-blowing, because the thesis says they are spending money like there is no tomorrow because THERE IS NO TOMORROW!
The little I've checked out is very intriguing and I'm going into remote viewing to see for myself what the future holds. I gots ta know more and this is the only venue to find it at this point. I've consumed enough of the information in this medium to know it is there (something very secret and easy to see once I find two dots) at the edge of all of what is going on and so have to step in order to see it more clearly.
Thanks for the reply.
on Mar 02, 2004
This is good. It seems GMNC's are above the law. Hey here's one that is scarily close-by me:
Cerestar Bioproducts BV( here they make glucose)
of course DOW Chemical owns our town. Here, are the real criminals, not the poor_Thanks Wahkonta.
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